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What Do You Mean by Spectrum? | What is Electromagnetic Radio waves? | What is Megahertz?

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Spectrum what is it?

Spectrum is an electromagnet wave that is used for wireless communication. The use of the electromagnet airwaves in a country is under control by the respective Government or agencies formed by the Government. A Government formed agency has the power to manage the Spectrum and issues the required licenses to the service providers like the telecom sector, FM, TV, defense communication, etc. 


You can say Spectrum is the property of the Government of every country and they can regularise as per their needs. Note that, Spectrum radio frequencies are limited that’s why it is so expensive.


There is an international agency called the “International Telecommunication Union (ITU)”  to monitor those radio frequency Spectrum and this organization is under control of the United Nations (UN).  ITU is responsible for all information and communication technologies matters and ITU equally allocated radio frequencies to the countries for their use.


What is Electromagnetic Radio waves?

Radio waves are a small part of the electromagnet wave spectrum. You can find different types of waves like Microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and Gamma rays, etc. But in communication, we mostly use radio waves. Radio waves are divided into respective frequencies, different clusters, and different bands.

What is Electromagnet Frequency?

Basically electromagnet waves are travel ahead with a particular pattern. You can say those patterns with easy language high or low, positive or negative, plus or minus. Frequency is calculated based on how many times does a wave repeat in one second to travel ahead?


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What is Megahertz?

Hertz is also known as frequency, lets us know how we measure it. If a wave repeats it transmission cycle 10 time within one second, it calculated as 10Hz, if wave repeats 100 times in one second is calculated as 100Hz. Similarly, if the wave repeats its 1 million transmission cycle within one second is called one Megahertz. 


What is Megahertz
What is Megahertz?

Difference Between High Frequency or Low Frequency

  • Commonly, the low-frequency waves can cover greater distances before dropping their integrity but carry fewer data.
  • Higher frequency wave transmits more data but covers lower distances. If some obstacles come between transmitter and receiver then it can’t be cover more distance.

Example Between Higher and Lower Frequency

if you have dual-band WiFi at your home you may check this. Dual-band WiFi means your router has two frequency bands option i.e 2.5GHz or  5GHz. If you connect your device with 2.5 GHz WiFi frequency, you will get lower speeds but greater reach. If you connect your device with 5GHz WiFi frequency, you will get great speed and low interference but will be able to connect to fewer devices and cover lower distances than 2.5GHz.


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History Of 1G – 5G

  • 1G: 1G is a telecommunication service that was launched in 1980 in the world, India has launched 1G services in 1990.
  • 1G uses an Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) it is supported only voice network. 1G network works on the 800MHz band
  • 2G: GSM Global System for mobile communication used radio frequency band of 900MHz spectrum and latter shifted to 1800MHz band. 
  • 3G: 3G uses UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)  2100MHz network which created coverage issues, so later it was combined with a 900MHz UMTS.
  • 4G: 4G uses  LTE (Long Term Evolution)  the existing 1800MHz frequency band
  • 5G: 5G uses 3.5 MHz radio frequency

Spectrum what is it

How Does Spectrum Work?

Spectrum frequencies are unique and different from device to device. TV remote frequencies are different from WiFi and mobile frequency that’s why these radio frequency signals do not overlap with each other.  

In this manner Spectrum issuing authority issues different bands of spectrum to service providers as per their requirement. The cellular network service provider uses their allocated Spectrum frequencies for telecommunication. 

After the allocation of the spectrum, the service provider uses it in the best possible way so that its user gets the best cellular experience without call drop. Every user connects with the cellphone tower with a unique transmission ID so that operator can identify the beneficiary id for better cellular service. Spectrum is a national resource of the country.


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